(Genetic disorder or Genetic disease)
A hereditary disease or genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual’s DNA. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Hereditary diseases, also known as inherited diseases or genetic disorders, are diseases which can be passed down through generations of the same family. Hereditary disease (genetic disorder or genetic disease) is an illness caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth.
Hereditary illnesses are sometimes passed down from parents to their children in much the same way as gene traits. For instance, blue-eyed parents will also have children with blue eyes. But diseases can prove much more subtle, as children might inherit the abnormal, dysfunctional genes of their parents even though previous generations never suffered from the symptoms of that disease. But today children can be born with serious, chronic or even fatal illnesses.
Hereditary diseases are heritable, and are passed down from the parents’ genes. If a hereditary disease (genetic disorder or genetic disease) is present from birth, it is a type of congenital defect. Some only show up in later life. There are close to 4000 known hereditary, or genetic, diseases known to afflict humans. Some of these diseases are common, while others are quite rare and appear in what seem like isolated cases within a particular family. For the most part, genetic disorders or diseases are not curable, but through medicine and treatment, many of the symptoms are less burdensome for the afflicted.
Different types of inheritance diseases
1; Single gene inheritance diseases
Single gene inheritance, also called Mendelian or mono-genetic inheritance. Some examples of mono-genetic disorders include: Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia (RBC disease), Marfan syndrome, Huntington’s disease, and Hemochromatosis.
2; Multifactorial inheritance diseases
Multifactorial inheritance, also called complex or polygenic inheritance. Multifactorial inheritance disorders or diseases are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. Examples of multifactorial inheritance include: Heart disease, High blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, Arthritis (Joints disease), Diabetes, Cancer, and Obesity.
3; Chromosome abnormalities diseases
Chromosomes, distinct structures made up of DNA and protein, are located in the nucleus of each cell. Because chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. For example, Down syndrome, (A disease in which number of chromosomes are 45) Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome and cri du chat syndrome,
4; Mitochondrial inheritance diseases
This type of genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the non-chromosomal DNA of mitochondria. Examples of mitochondrial disease include: an eye disease called Leber’s hereditary optic atrophy, a type of epilepsy called MERRF which stands for myoclonus epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibbers, and a form of dementia called MELAS for mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes.
Treatment or Management of Hereditary diseases (genetic disorders)
The treatment approach for different hereditary diseases differ, based upon what part or function of the biology it afflicts. Many genetic disorders or diseases result from gene changes that are present in essentially every cell in the body. As a result, these disorders or diseases often affect many body systems, and most cannot be cured. However, approaches may be available to treat or manage some of the associated signs and symptoms. For genetic conditions, treatment and management strategies are designed to improve particular signs and symptoms associated with the disorder or disease. These approaches vary by disorder or disease and are specific to an individual’s health needs.